Classification and use of copper

Update date:2018-04-09 Source:MAXGE

Classification and use of copper

  Pure copper is a purple-red metal, commonly known as "red copper", "red copper" or "red copper." Pure copper is ductile. Pure copper, the size of a drop of water, can be pulled up to two kilometers of filaments or rolled into an almost transparent foil larger than a bed. The most valuable property of pure copper is its excellent electrical conductivity, which is second only to silver in all metals and has thus become the “protagonist” of the electrical industry.

  The use of pure copper is much wider than that of pure iron. Every year, 50% of copper is electrolytically purified to pure copper for use in the electrical industry. The pure copper mentioned here is indeed very pure, with a copper content of more than 99.95%. A very small amount of impurities, especially phosphorus, arsenic, aluminum, etc., will greatly reduce the conductivity of copper. Oxygen in copper (it is easy to mix in a small amount of oxygen when smelting copper) has a great influence on the electrical conductivity, so copper used in the electrical industry must generally be oxygen-free copper. In addition, impurities such as lead, antimony, and bismuth do not allow the copper crystals to bond together, causing hot brittleness and affecting the processing of pure copper.

This pure copper with high purity is generally refined by electrolysis: impure copper (ie, blister copper) is used as the anode, pure copper is used as the cathode, and copper sulfate solution is used as the electrolyte. When the current passes, the impure copper on the anode gradually melts and pure copper gradually precipitates on the cathode. This refined copper; purity of up to 99.99%.

Copper is a kind of relatively pure copper, generally can be approximated as pure copper, conductive and plastic are better, but the strength and hardness are worse.

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Brass Properties and Uses

Brass is a copper alloy containing other alloy components. It is cheaper than copper, and its electrical conductivity and plasticity are a little worse than those of copper, but its strength and hardness are higher.

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. The simplest brass is a copper-zinc binary alloy called simple brass or ordinary brass. Brass with different mechanical properties can be obtained by changing the content of zinc in brass. The higher the zinc content in brass, the higher the strength and the lower the plasticity. The amount of zinc contained in brass used in industry is not more than 45%, and the high zinc content will cause brittleness and deteriorate the properties of the alloy.

Adding 1% tin to brass can significantly improve brass's ability to resist seawater and marine atmospheric corrosion and is therefore called "Navy Brass." Tin can improve the cutting performance of brass. Lead brass is what we commonly call the easy to cut the national standard copper. The main purpose of adding lead is to improve the cutting processability and improve the wear resistance, lead has little effect on the strength of brass. Engraving copper is also a type of lead brass. Most brasses have good color, processability, ductility, and are easy to electroplate or paint.

In industrial and civil use, different materials are selected according to different characteristics of use. As a wire, it requires a softer, red copper is better. As a coupling, brass is often used on the screw.

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Bronze properties and uses

Originally referred to as copper-tin alloys, copper alloys other than brass and copper-nickel alloys were called bronze, and they were often preceded by the name of the first major additive element in bronze. Tin bronze has good casting performance, good anti-friction performance and good mechanical properties, and is suitable for manufacturing bearings, worm gears, and gears. Lead bronze is a widely used bearing material for modern engines and grinders. Aluminum bronze has high strength, good abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance, and is used to cast high load gears, bushings, marine propellers, etc. Beryllium bronze and phosphor bronze have high elastic limit and good conductivity, and are suitable for manufacturing precision springs and electrical contact elements. Beryllium bronze is also used for making non-sparking tools used in coal mines and oil depots.

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The properties and uses of cupronickel

Copper alloy with nickel as the main additive. The copper-nickel binary alloy is called ordinary cupronickel; the cupronickel alloy with manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum and other elements is called complex cupronickel. Industrial copper is divided into two categories: structural white copper and electric white copper. Structural characteristics of white copper is good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance, beautiful color. This white copper is widely used in the manufacture of precision machinery, chemical machinery and marine components. Electrician copper generally has good thermoelectric properties. Manganese, copper, and copper are manganese-nickel-coppers with different amounts of manganese. They are used in the manufacture of precision electrical instruments, varistors, precision resistors, strain gauges, and thermocouples.

How to distinguish between copper, brass, bronze and copper

Cupronickel, brass, red copper (also known as "red copper"), bronze (cyan gray or grayish yellow) are distinguished from each other by color, among which the white copper and brass are easily distinguished; the red copper is pure copper (impurities < 1% ), bronze (about 5% of other alloy components) is slightly indistinguishable. When not oxidized, the color of the red copper is brighter than that of the bronze, and the bronze is slightly cyan or yellow; after the oxidation, the red copper turns black, and the bronze is in the shade of blue-green (more harmful oxidation of water) or chocolate.

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